For example: the Nikon and Laurentian Chronicles - in Minsk, during the well-known battle of Nemiga, in March 3, 1067 (1066) “there was a great snow, severe winter came with a terrible cold”; Ipatiev Chronicle - in 1190 “it was warm in winter in Pinsk, the snow melt down”; The South Russian chronicle - in August 3, 1694 “a great hail fell around Vitebsk, that smashed all the bally crops in the field”; in 1698 “there was a strong storm in Vitebsk”.
observations in Mogilev have been organized since 1808, in Vitebsk - since 1810, in Brest - since 1834, in Bobruisk and Svisloch - since 1836, in
Grodno - since 1837, in Gorki - c 1841, in Minsk - since 1849. The Main
Physical Observatory (MPO) was created in St. Petersburg in April 1, 1849 by
the decree of Nicholas I, by the initiative of Academician A. Kupfer. Eight
meteorological stations that were opened at those points and were included into
MPO backbone network. After the observatory organization the meteorological
network began to develop more actively. The year of 1886 witnessed a sharp
increase in the meteorological network on the Belarusian provinces territory -
45 meteorological stations belonging to various departments.
List of 45 meteorological observations stations
belonging to different departments (1886).
observations materials have been published in the "MPO Observations
Collection" beginning from 1850, and 1865 to 1910 they were regularly
placing in “The MPO Chronicles”. In 1895 in those chronicles there were placed
observation materials of 17 stations and in 1897 - data of 21 stations located
on the Belarusian territory were already published. Taking into account the
network of stations of the third category, that year in the Belarusian
provinces territory, weather observations were carried out with the help of
almost 100 stations. In 1906, the number of stations published in the MPO chronicles
increased even more - 43 (38 of them were in the current borders of Belarus).
Belarusian Rivers first hydrological researches started at the beginning of the
eighteenth century when waterways began to develop and navigable canals were
built. More systematic Belarusian Rivers first hydrological researches started
with the establishment of the Main Administration of Water Communications of
Russia. Observations upon the opening and freezing of rivers were first
organized in Belarus in the early 19th century (1808). The first stationary
hydrological posts were opened on large rivers of Belarus for shipping purposes
in 1876. Studying the Belorussian Polesie rivers was engaged for a long time
(1873-1898) by “The Western expedition of draining the marshes” directed by
official issued publication of the observations results at the Belarusian
hydrological posts is “Information on water level conditions on the rivers and
lakes of European Russia on observations at 80 water-measuring posts (1881)”.
Subsequently, from 1881 to 1910, observations on the hydrological network for
decades were published in the editions of “Information on the water level on
the inland waterways of Russia”.
there were 27 meteorological stations, 65 rain-gauge stations and 63
water-measuring posts that belonged to various departments in Belarus.
The number those stations include only
observation points located on the territory of modern Republic of Belarus, but
after the division of the territory the rest remained outside the country. For
example, in total, the Belarusian provinces meteorological network included 44
stations of the 2nd category and 76 stations of the 3d category.
First World War and the Civil War, the hydrometeorological network location
geography on the Belarusian territory has changed significantly: many
meteorological stations and posts were ceased to function, were destroyed and
hydrological observations were ceased.
The Headquarters in 1914-1916 was in the
Baranovichi area in specially equipped trains. The Chief Commander received
full climatic data, information about weather and hydrological conditions in
the front’s area.
Konstantinovski headquarters a weather station operated in the
Izabellino-Pruzhany area. In Minsk, on the Western Front worked meteorological
and hydrological departments. The new hydrometeorological’s service formation
began from the first days after the October Revolution. Council of People's
Commissars of the RSFSR issued a decree “The organization of the meteorological
service in the RSFSR” on June 21, 1921 signed by Vladimir Lenin, that document
clarified the tasks of the Russian hydrometeorological service. Similar work
carried out in all republics that had been included in The Union since 1922,
including in Belarus. In 1919 there were only 7 stations in Belarus that
belonged to different departments. In 1921 eight water-measuring and two
rain-lifting stations were resumed. At that time the hydrometeorological
observation stations were mainly subordinated to the People's Commissariat of
Agriculture (the People's Commissariat for Agriculture or the National People’s
Commissariat) and the People's Commissariat of Communications (the People's
Commissariat or the People’s Commissariat of Transport). The weather stations
in Gorki, Vasilevichi, Maryina Gorka, and the Novoe Korolevo remained in charge
of the MPO.
On June 2,
1923, decided to organize BSSRs’ meteorological observations network. The
network also planned to include the existing network of weather stations and posts
that belonged to the People’s Commissariat of Communications - 7 stations of
the 2nd category and 2 stations of the 3d category.
1, 1924, the Meteorological Office began to work under the authority of the
Experimental Department of the People’s Commissariat of Agriculture. The
primary task of the Meteorological Office was to secure the network’s correct
management operation of the existing own and departmental hydrometeorological
units of the BSSR, received materials collection and processing, the necessary
hydrometeorological information delivery to the concerned departments and
organizations, the development of a scientifically based network of stations
and posts. Professor Nikolai Myshkin was appointed as the head of the
Nikolai Myshkin (1864 - 1936)
1924 is considered to be the Belarusian Hydrometeorological Service formation
date. Already at the beginning of its activity, the meteorological office began
processing the meteorological network observations and materials began to
publish in the form of MPO chronicles in 1925. The first Belarusian Weather
Bulletin was published in April 1925. The first balloon pilot was launched in
Minsk in July 1926. Since 1926, agrometeorological observations have been
launched, and research work on the study of hail storming has begun.
beginning of 1927, the Meteorological Office was attached to the Belarusian
Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry under the CPC of the BSSR and
became part of the organized by the Belarusian Geophysical Service Institute.
In 1928 it was transformed into the department of the network of meteorological
stations of Belgeophysis, which checked and processed the data of observations
of 80 meteorological stations of the republic, made monthly weather surveys and
its influence on the condition of crops and grasses.
According to the Meteorological Office data on
February 1, 1927, there were on the Belarusian territory:
- 20 stations of the 2d category, four of them
were on the Main Physical Observatory, seven - the People's Commissariat of the
USSR, nine - the People’s Commissariat of the BSSR;
- 2 aerostat stations (Minsk and Gorki);
- 37 rain and snow measuring posts, 5 of which
are MPO’s, 30 of the People’s Commissariat of the BSSR;
- 40 water and rain posts belonged to the
Department of Land Management and Land Reclamation of the People’s Commissariat
- 15 snow measuring posts of the People’s
Commissariat of the BSSR;
- 7 measuring stations.
the management of hydrological works in the republic has been entrusted to the
People’s Commissariat of Agriculture hydrological part. In the same year, all
meteorological stations that were on the maintenance of the MPO, were
subordinated to the BSSRs’ Meteorological Office. The question of uniting the entire
network in a single state body arose.
Belarusian Hydrometeorological Institute became a part of the
Hydrometeorological Committee of the Council of People's Commissars of the BSSR
resolution of the Central Executive Committee (CEC) and the Council of People’s
Commissars (CPC) of the USSR of August 7, 1929 №. 468 "About the merger of
the hydrological and meteorological service and the creation of the Unified
Service in the country with the governing body - the USSR Hydromet Committee"
was adopted very timely. In Belarus, in accordance with the decision of the
Council of People’s Commissars of the BSSR, the Republican Hydromet Committee
was established; the provision was approved for the organization of a single
hydrometeorological service in the territory of the BSSR and its best service
to all branches of the national economy and defense (№. 120 of March 23).
Hydromet Committee, by decision of the Council of People’s Commissars of the
BSSR №. 170 of July 3, 1930, it was decided to establish the Belarusian
Hydrometeorological Institute, which included: the Belarusian Geophysical
Service of the Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry with its weather
stations network; a network of meteorological stations of The People’s
Commissariat of Transport (PCT), experimental stations; the hydrological part
of the People’s Commissariat of Agriculture with a network of water and
rainwater posts, and later a network of water points of the Dnieper river
transport and other institutions. Pavel Adamov was invited to establish the
work of the new institute.
Pavel Adamov (1887 - 1975)
Aleksei Kaigorodov (1881 - 1951)
same year, the Geophysical Observatory was established in Minsk by the Decree
of the Council of People’s Commissars of the BSSR on October 3, 1930, which
began functioning after the building construction completed in January 1, 1936.
The head of the observatory was nominated Aleksei Kaigorodov, who compiled a
detailed task for the design of a three-storied observatory building with a
tower and residential accommodation for the staff, providing for places for the
manor and the building of the observatory, and did a five-year development plan
and equipment of the organization.
The Minsk Geophysical Observatory building in
A modern view of the observatory in 2016
connection with the decision of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR,
the Hydromet Committee was transferred to the People's Commissariat of
February 1931, the number of stations and posts under the jurisdiction of the
Belarusian Hydrometeorological Institute were 40 meteorological and 23
Directorate of the Unified Hydrometeorological Service under the People’s Committee
of Agriculture of the BSSR. (the resolution of March 28, 1933, CPC BSSR
Hydromet Committee was reorganized).
the management of the Belarusian hydrometeorological service was commissioned
by the Smolensk Hydrometeorological Service.
In 1939, the
BSSR’s Hydrometeorological Service Administration was established after the
reunification with the Western Belorussia, which was under Poland, with the
At the end
of 1940, the Department carried out its activities under the name “Belarusian
Department of Hydrometeorological Service” and was administered by the Main
Directorate of the Hydrometeorological Service under the Council of People’s
Commissars of the USSR. In 1941, on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, a
technically equipped state hydrometeorological network operated on the
Belarusian territory, which numbered 464 hydro-meteorological stations and
posts, which are an integral part of the USSR hydrometeorological service, of
these: meteorological stations 2nd and 3d category - 139, hydrological stations
and posts - 325.
sudden attack of fascist Germany on the Soviet Union, the territory of Belarus
was quickly occupied. The Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service of
the BSSR ceased its activity practically from the first days of the war.
Workers who managed to evacuate joined the Red Army, or continued to work in
the departments of hydrometeorological services of other republics.
During the Great Patriotic War
of individual stations and posts bravely continued to conduct observations
during the occupation - for example in Gorki, Vasilevichi, Maryina Gorka,
Borisov, Gantsevichi and other cities and towns. But the results of
meteorological observations of those times were not completely preserved.
Meteorological observation tables. Minsk, May 1943
occupied Minsk, the Germans resumed the work of the Minsk Moor, which operated
on the basis of the Swamp Station. The observation materials were recorded in
Soviet forms, and since 1943 - in weather tables in German. Meteorological
observations were also conducted in Loshitsa.
written information about the Belarusian Administration of the
Hydrometeorological Service, as an acting institution during the Great
Patriotic War, dates back to 1943. The Belarusian Department of
Hydrometeorological Service resumed its activity in Moscow in June 1943 under
the name of “Western Administration of Hydrometeorological Service of the
Moscow Military District” (Western AHMS MMD) and the head of the Department was
Andrei Glomozda, he was the permanent head of the Hydrometeorological Service
of the BSSR.
Andrey Glomozda (1909 - 1987)
1943 the Administration relocated to Smolensk. According to the order of the MDHS of the RA of
June 12, 1943, 18 hydrometeorological stations and 18 posts of the Smolensk
region with their available staff were transferred from the AHMS of the Moscow
Military District from July 10, 1943.
about meteorological observations that were carried out in the partisan areas
of the Belarusian SSR during the Great Patriotic War.
1. To secure the normal operation of aviation, which carried out the
transfer of military cargo, people and the evacuation of seriously wounded, the
Belarusian partisan movement headquarters in 1942-43 organized a network of
meteorological observation stations near the main landing areas and places of
ejections equipped with partisan detachments. The meteorological stations
transmitted data about the weather three times a day from the Vitebsk, Vileika,
Minsk, Mogilev, Gomel, Pinsk, Baranovichi and Brest Regions on the radio. At
each of the largest partisan airfields - Begoml, Selyavshchina, "Zyslov
Island", Pechische, Porechie, Svarin - BPMH sent a weather forecaster who
was both the commandant of the airfield and the representative of the
long-range aviation headquarters. Immediately before the departure, the flights
crews received actual weather in the target area and the weather forecast
prepared by the meteorological service of the corps along the route. More often
two routes were used:
- northern: Moscow-Rzhev-target,
- southern: Moscow-Kaluga-Gomel-target.
Data about weather that got from meteorological posts were used not only
in the partisan movement system, but also by the State administration of the hydrometeorological
service (SAHS) to support the military aviation. (Based on the materials of the
party archive of the party history Institute of the Central Committee of the
2. In the summer of 1943, a sample of an automatic weather station (AWS)
was tested in one of the partisan districts of the Mogilev region. The station
operated successfully for a month, transmitting pressure and air temperature on
the radio every four hours. (Based on the materials of the book A. Goreleichenko, AWS transmits the weather.)
During the Great Patriotic War, the Belarusian hydrometeorological
service suffered heavy losses. About 300 skilled workers were killed; over 85%
of stations and 90% of fasts were completely destroyed; valuable equipment and
a fund of scientific and technical materials in their majority destroyed or
were exported to Germany.
The order that approved the plan for restoring hydrometeorological
stations and fasts of the Western Administration of the Hydrometeorological
Service of the Belarusian Military District was issued in Smolensk in December
1943. The period of restoration of the observation network began. Under the
plan, it was necessary to restore 52 stations and 189 fasts in the Belarusian
Republic (an approved list of stations and fasts on August 1, 1943). Since
January 1944, the Western Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service of
the Moscow Military District (AHS of the MMD) has been transformed into the
Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service of the Belarusian Military
District (AHS of the BMD).
The restoration of the destroyed network (the opening of stations and
fasts) was carried out by special restoration batches as soon as the territory
of Belarus was liberated. After the liberation of the capital of the Belarusian
SSR, the Administration in July 1944 relocated from Smolensk to Minsk. In a
short time, thanks to the work carried out, the hydrometeorological service of
Belarus was basically restored by the end of 1944. By the beginning of 1945, 46
stations and 185 fasts already operated on the territory of Belarus, the
forecasting service bodies, the Belarusian Geophysical Observatory and the
management bodies worked. In 1945, the Administration of
the Hydrometeorological Service of the Belarusian Military District (AHS of the
BMD) was renamed the Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service of the
Belarusian-Lithuanian Military District (AHS of the BLMD), then to the
Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service of the Minsk Military
District (AHS of the MMD). In August
1945, the first post-war meeting of station leaders with representatives of
serviced organizations took place.
The first post-war meeting of
workers of the Hydrometeorological Service of Belarus, August 1945
Hydrometeorological Service of the country was transferred into a civilian
position, the AHS of the MMD was reorganized in the AHS of the BSSR in 1946.
The Meteorological area at the
Observatory, June 24, 1947
1948 the Belarusian Hydrometeorological Service became the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO) member whose representatives regularly participate in the
work of WMO congresses, as well as in sessions of regional associations.
The Hydrometeorological Service of Belarus was repeatedly noted as an advanced
one in the Union socialist competition. The first shifting Red flag of the
Moscow State University of Civil Aviation and the Central Committee of the
Union of Aircraft Workers was awarded to the collective for the achieved
production successes in 1951.
period of the 60s of the last century is characterized by the introduction of
instrumental observations of visibility (M-53, M-71, M-37, RDV-1), wind
parameters, and recording of the lower cloud boundary. The process of
production, collection, processing and dissemination of hydrometeorological
information on the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been automated.
Hydrometeorological Service of the Republic of Belarus was a kind of testing
ground in the development of new technical means - meteorological instruments
and equipment (including automatic meteorological stations) in the times of the
first automatic meteorological stations were stations M-106 with a set of
sensors. From March 1971 to December 1973, 25 meteorological stations were
transferred to the operating mode in the volume of automatic stations, i.e.
only instrumental observations were lead of the temperature and humidity of the
air, atmospheric pressure, wind characteristics, soil temperature in depth,
sunshine, precipitation, visibility and the height of the lower boundary of the
automation has affected not only meteorology and ground observations. Automatic
hydrological stations were tested during this period, machine processing of
agrometeorological information was introduced, a system for automated
processing of aerological information was created, equipment for automatic
processing of meteorological radar data was tested, and automatic processing of
actinometric observations was introduced.
1974, the Belarusian Hydrometeorological Service included the Belarusian
territorial hydrometeorological center, three observatories, 34 meteorological
stations, six specialized (swamp, lake, forest and 3 agrometeorological), 7
hydrological, 16 aerometeorological stations, 201 hydrological stations, and
about 700 collective farm and state farm agrometeorological fasts.
The Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service of the BSSR was
transformed into the Belarusian Republican Administration for Hydrometeorology
and Environmental Control.
1988. The Belarusian Republican Administration for
Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control was renamed “The Belarusian
Republican Administration for Hydrometeorology”.
It was transformed into the Main Administration for Hydrometeorology under the
Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus.
the proclamation of the sovereignty of Belarus in 1991, the Law of the Republic
of Belarus “About Hydrometeorological Activity” was developed and established
on May 10, 1999, establishing the legal basis for the implementation of the
hydrometeorological activities of the national hydrometeorological service. At
present, organizations and subdivisions of the national hydrometeorological
service are guided in their activities by the law of the Republic of Belarus of
09.01. 2006 No. 93-З “About Hydrometeorological Activities”.
It was reorganized into the Committee for Hydrometeorology of the Ministry for
Emergency Situations and Population Protection from the Consequences of the
Chernobyl Disaster of the Republic of Belarus.
It was transformed into the State Committee for Hydrometeorology of the
Republic of Belarus.
In 2001, the State Committee on
Hydrometeorology of the Republic of Belarus was liquidated by the Decree of the
President of the Republic of Belarus. State regulation in the field of
hydrometeorology is entrusted to the Ministry of Natural Resources and
Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus, in whose structure the
Department for Hydrometeorology was established. It included the Republican Hydrometeorological
Center, the Republican Aeronautical and Meteorological Center, the Republican
Center for Radiation Monitoring and Environmental Monitoring, six regional
hydrometeorological centers, 54 weather stations, 86 meteorological posts, 3
hydrological stations, 136 hydrological stations, 6 hydrometeorological
stations, a background monitoring station, lake station, swamp station, 2
inter-district centers for hydrometeorology and environmental monitoring, 8
aeronautical meteorological civil stations.
2015 year. The state institution “Republican
Hydrometeorological Center” and the state institution “Republican сenter for radiation monitoring and environmental monitoring” have been merged into the
State Institution “Republican center for hydrometeorology, control of radioactive contamination and environmental monitoring” (Hydromet).
activities are aimed at ensuring:
• Hydrometeorological security of the country;
• Needs of government agencies, economic sectors and the public in hydrometeorological data and information about the environment;
• Participation in international cooperation in the field of hydrometeorological activities.
Since 2016, the Hydrometeorological Service has
been participating in the Integrated Environmental Monitoring Program in the Belarusian
Nuclear Power Plant location area.
2017 year. State institution “Republican center for hydrometeorology, control of radioactive contamination and environmental monitoring” (Belhydromet).
The state institution “Republican center for hydrometeorology, control of radioactive contamination and environmental monitoring” was reorganized by joining regional centers for hydrometeorology
and environmental monitoring to it.
Currently, the main hydrometeorological service
of Belarus is the state network of hydrometeorological observations, which
includes 165 hydrometeorological objects:
• 6 - regional centers for hydrometeorology and
environmental monitoring (Belhydromet branches);
• 4 - Interregional Center for Hydrometeorology
and Environmental Monitoring;
• 31 - meteorological station;
• 7 - civil aeronautical meteorological
• 6 - agrometeorological stations;
• 2 - hydrological stations;
• the swamp station;
• background monitoring station;
• 107 hydrological posts.
Radiosounding of the atmosphere is performed by
air stations in Brest and Gomel.
The main goals of the activities of the
Hydrometeorological Service of Belarus were and still are:
- environmental regular monitoring, information
gathering, analysis and generalization;
- hydrometeorological forecasts compilation,
provision of information on actual and expected weather conditions, warnings of
dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena;
- ensuring prompt response in the event of
accidents or incidents related to environmental pollution;
- maintenance of the climatic cadaster, water cadaster;
- study of climatic, agrometeorological,
hydrological conditions in the territory of the Republic of Belarus, analysis
of regional climate changes;
- ensuring, in accordance with the established
procedure, government agencies, other organizations, economic sectors and the
public with all types of hydrometeorological and radiation-ecological
- participation in interstate exchange of
information on the state of the environment in accordance with the
recommendations of WMO and UNESCO.
Within the framework of international
cooperation, the specialists of the Hydrometeorological Service of Belarus take
part in various international projects (for example, Baltic Earth, BALTRAD).
The materials of G. Pavlotsky, R.